What are Intelligence Tests (I.Q Tests)
The word intelligence has been defined in different ways by various psychologists, but they all agree to one simple definition which says, Intelligence means “an innate ability to solve problems” This innate ability is not acquired in class-rooms and from the reading of books, but is available in a person from his birth. The intelligence is the essence of the faculties of understanding reasoning, judgment, adaptability, persistence, and self-criticism.
There are some writers who believe in general intelligence, while there are some others who think that there is no general intelligence. To the first class belongs writers like Ster. Meanman and Ballard, whereas the second class belongs to writers like Thorndike. Wordsworth defines “intelligence” as that “which involves doing a miscellaneous lot of things and do them right”. Cyril Burt says, “intelligence is the power of reasoning and adjustment to new situations”. Ebbinghans considers that “intelligence iS the ability to abstract, compare, contrast and classify. The formulator of “patient puzzle”, Binet, a well-known psychologist is of the view that intelligence consists of
- The consciousness of the ends to be attained;
- The trial of possible means to end;
- Auto-criticism of the trials made.
Value of Intelligence Tests
A man, apart from the general intelligence, has the special aptitude. Hence, it is essential that fit persons should be chosen to hold different appointments and to do different jobs.
Many experiments have been made and researches have been conducted in this connection and it has been established that intelligence tests are best suited for this object. Such intelligence tests have been evolved by the Federal Public Service Commissions and other various civil and military examinations in Pakistan to select suitable persons for filling various appointments in the different departments.
Such tests, are conducted by Inter Service Selection Board (ISSB), located at Kohat for candidates who are anxious for joining Army, Air Force and Navy.
Therefore, the test of intelligence becomes the key point of all vocation tests.
Origin of Intelligence Tests
The idea of intelligence is said to have originated in France, where a French psychologist, M. Binet, conducted great research in this field and finally designed different kinds of tests for the measurement of the aptitude of the candidates for the various jobs. M. Binet, in 1896, prepared various tests which enabled his Government to select candidates on those lines.
Growth and decline of Intelligence
Psychologists believe that the process of growth of intelligence continues in the child. Mental age increases rapidly to the age of -13 to 15, and more slowly to the age of 15 to 18. Researches and experiments have brought out that intelligence comes to its climax at the age of 26 years. Then at a certain age, the Law of Diminishing or Return of Intelligence begins and it actually starts decreasing in old age.
Mode of Intelligence Tests
The mode of intelligence tests for the selection of suitable officers for the Defence Forces of Pakistan at the ISSB is rather simple. The candidate is required to make use of his acquired knowledge and his own inborn intelligence to solve problems. The questions set in these tests do not require long answers, but they are required to reply in “yes’ or “no” or put a tick around the correct answer or to write the serial number of the correct answer out of a few suggested answers on the given sheet of paper, which usually begin from easy to lengthy questions. Although, questions set in these tests are not so difficult, but the time of answering these questions is very short. The candidate has to make up his high speed in answering these numerous questions.
The practice is very helpful
The candidates of ISSB, Federal Public Commission of CSS or other civil and military tests must make practice in solving intelligence tests. The candidates must familiarize themselves with the different kinds of tests that may be put to them at these tests. Practice will help candidates in solving various types of tests and it will also put them in a position to grasp requirements of the tests more quickly and easily.
Instructions for solving Intelligence Tests
1. The Testing Officer, before putting the candidates to a test, imparts instructions to the candidates as to how they have to answer the questions. He gives instructions regarding the requirements of the tests, how and where they have to write the answers and the time limit, etc. The candidates must listen to those instructions carefully and try to grasp every detail. If a candidate finds even the slightest doubt about a question, etc., he should have to clarify there and then. But as soon as the candidates are ordered to begin solving the questions, they are not allowed to ask anything from anyone,
2. The times of the tests are very short. A candidate usually gets only 30 seconds for one question. Hence, he must work quickly. If the candidate fails to concentrate on solving the questions and is entangled in thinking, then the is sure to lag behind.
3. There may be some questions, the answers of which are not in such situations, readily known to the candidates. candidates, must leave them and pass on to answering the next questions. On reaching the end, the candidates can find the time and refer back to such unattempted questions and can answer these.
4. The candidates should not put any mark on the booklets which contain questions. They should not tear any page out of it. These booklets are to be returned to the testing officer intact.
5. Along with the question booklets, the candidates are given an answer sheet. The candidates should be very careful in filling the personal particulars on the top of their sheet. Before starting writing answers to the questions, the candidates must fill in these particulars.
6. Usually, in the first column of this answer sheet, a serial number of the questions contained in the booklet are supplied The candidates should start giving answers in the second column.